On Miracles: Part 2, Meaning Over Mechanism

Monday, 24 October 2016 05:00 am
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Posted by Richard Beck

We all interpret life events, big things and small. Life has meaning for us.

When I listen to my friends speak about miracles what I strikes me most is that it is a hermeneutical activity, an interpretive activity, a way of making meaning of life.

More specifically, speaking of miracles is to be engaged in a hermeneutics of enchantment, hallowing and relationship. Things happens in life. For one person an event means nothing, signifies nothing. Life, to borrow from Mark Twain's definition of history, is just one damn thing after another. A day is just a string of meaningless occurrences.

But when you speak of miracles, when you read your day with a hermeneutics of enchantment and hallowing, life isn't like that. Instead of one damn thing after another your day is filled with sacred moments, boredom is filled with adventure, and small, even trivial, events become experiences of grace.

All this to say, one of the theological triggers behind my hesitancy with miracles has been that I've tended to think about miracles metaphysically rather than hermeneutically. That is to say, I've focused more on mechanism than meaning-making. And since I've struggled with the mechanisms I've tended to be dismissive of miracle talk, especially when the events are trivial, like finding lost car keys.

But recently I've begun to think that miracles are a hermeneutical activity that gives life sacred weight, texture and meaning. Miracles are less about supernatural mechanisms--Did God, in fact, supernaturally intervene to help you find your lost keys?--than about experiencing life in a more interactive, relational and enchanted manner.

So what does this hermeneutics consist of? What experience does it seek to create?

In the next three posts I'll describe three features of the hermeneutics of miracles.

New spamference joke

Monday, 24 October 2016 12:00 am
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Posted by Mark Liberman

Ethan Weston & Carter Woodiel, "Paper Fully Written By iOS Autocomplete Accepted By Physics Conference", Newsy 10/23/2016:

A nonsensical academic paper on nuclear physics written only by iOS autocomplete has been accepted for a scientific conference.  

Christoph Bartneck, an associate professor at the Human Interface Technology laboratory at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand, received an email inviting him to submit a paper to the International Conference on Atomic and Nuclear Physics in the US in November. 

“Since I have practically no knowledge of nuclear physics I resorted to iOS autocomplete function to help me writing the paper,” he wrote in a blog post on Thursday.

“I started a sentence with ‘atomic’ or ‘nuclear’ and then randomly hit the autocomplete suggestions.  “The text really does not make any sense.”

The paper is here: "Atomic Energy will have been made available to a single source". Its abstract:

Atomic Physics and I shall not have the same problem with a separate section for a very long long way. Nuclear weapons will not have to come out the same day after a long time of the year he added the two sides will have the two leaders to take the same way to bring up to their long ways of the same as they will have been a good place for a good time at home the united front and she is a great place for a good time. The atoms of a better universe will have the right for the same as you are the way we shall have to be a great place for a great time to enjoy the day you are a wonderful person to your great time to take the fun and take a great time and enjoy the great day you will be a wonderful time for your parents and kids. Molecular diagnostics will have been available for the rest by a single day and a good day to the rest have a wonderful time and aggravation for the rest day at home time for the two of us will have a great place for the rest to be great for you tomorrow and tomorrow after all and I am a very happy boy to the great day and I hope he is wonderful. Nevertheless I have to go back home to nuclear power to the united way she is to be the first woman united to work on their own and the rest will be the same way as she will have to come back to work and we are still not the way we shall have the united side and we are not the same way she is the way she said the same as she was a good time. Physics are great but the way it does it makes you want a good book and I will pick it to the same time I am just a little more than I can play for later and then it is very very good for a good game. Nuclear energy is not a nuclear nuclear power to the nuclear nuclear program he added and the nuclear nuclear program is a good united state of the nuclear nuclear power program and the united way nuclear nuclear program nuclear. Scientist and I have been very good to me today I hope I have to work on tomorrow after work today so far but I'm still going for tomorrow night at work today but I'm not going home said I am a good friend and a great time for the rest I have been doing. Physics are great but the same as you have been able and the same way to get the rest to your parents. Atoms for a play of the same as you can do with a great time to take the rest to your parents or you will be nucleus a great time for a great place. Power is not a great place for a good time.

The first famous example of this general type is described in "Cybernetic Text", 4/15/2005, and "(Mis)Informing Science", 4/20/2005. I haven't been able to locate an extant copy of the markov-chain-generated paper involved in that affair, but my memory is that it was somewhat more plausible than the iOS gibberish above.



Erotic phonemes

Sunday, 23 October 2016 10:02 pm
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Posted by Mark Liberman

An unusually large number of people have suggested that I should post about the latest SMBC comic. Since I'm on the other side of the world, with slow and erratic internet, I'll just post the link, and note that (implied pornography aside) it would be good phonetics assignment to replace Zach's letter strings with IPA symbols.


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Posted by Ben Zimmer

Donald Trump, as we have discussed a few times now, is fond of using big league as a post-verbal adjunct, though it's often misheard as bigly. (See: "Bigly," 2/26/16; "The world wants 'bigly'," 5/5/16; "Don't let 'bigly' catch on," 10/18/16.) On the night of Wednesday's presidential debate, UC Berkeley's Susan Lin helpfully shared a spectrogram of the relevant utterance from Trump, demonstrating the "velar pinch" associated with the final /g/ of big league. The spectrogram first appeared in the Facebook group Friends of Berkeley Linguists and then was tweeted by Jennifer Nycz and Tara McAllister Byun.

After it circulated on Twitter, Lin's spectrogram then got incorporated into news stories from Mashable, Thrillist, Mic, and Washington Post's The Fix, presented as the authoritative word on a subject that has clearly been on a lot of people's minds. (Philip Bump, in his piece for The Fix, noted that on the night of the debate, "bigly donald trump" came in third among all Trump-related Google searches, after "donald trump iraq" and "donald trump iraq war.")

Now that the phoneticians have spoken, this is a good time to look at the history of Trump's peculiar usage, which shows no sign of abating. Just yesterday, at a rally at Regent University in Virginia Beach, Trump ratcheted up big league by pairing it with even bigger league — though of course many people heard it as even biggerly.

I looked through some news databases to trace Trump's growing penchant for big league. First, let's turn the clock back to 1993, when Japan's economy was in the midst of a collapse. In August of that year, Trump, with his soon-to-be-wife Marla Maples, visited Tokyo on an Asian trip, where he was quoted as following:

I have a lot of real estate friends in Japan, many of whom I have seen (this trip), and these people are hurting big league, and they think it is going to get a lot worse. (The Daily Yomiuri, Aug. 19, 1993)

This is the earliest example I've been able to find of Trumpian big league. The next example I turned up is from 1997, in an AP article about Trump canceling plans for an addition to his Taj Mahal casino in Atlantic City. Trump was irritated that the New Jersey state government had offered incentives to a rival casino developer, including the construction of a tunnel link.

We're doing that because we think the state of New Jersey is being ripped big league. The taxpayers are being hurt badly by this tunnel transaction. (Associated Press, Mar. 20, 1997)

Two years later in 1999, Trump used big league in a high-profile media appearance: his announcement on CNN's "Larry King Live" that he was forming a presidential exploratory committee to consider a run on the Reform Party ticket.

The fact is, that the world is ripping off this country: Germany is ripping us off big league; Saudi Arabia is ripping us off big league; France, I mean, they're the worst team player I've ever seen in my life. (CNN, Oct. 8, 1999)

Later that month, he repeated the formulation on NBC's "Meet the Press."

I think if we go back and negotiate with Japan and Germany and lots of countries, France, that are just ripping us–Saudi Arabia–you look at these deficits–that are just ripping us big league… I mean, they're just ripping us, and they're ripping us big league. ("Meet the Press," Oct. 24, 1999)

Trump never did end up running for president in 2000, though his big league usage would continue. In early 2004, Trump's competitive reality show "The Apprentice" debuted on NBC, and in a voiceover at the beginning of the first episode, he used big league again.

But it wasn't always so easy. About thirteen years ago, I was seriously in trouble. I was billions of dollars in debt, but I fought back and I won big league. ("The Apprentice," Season 1, Episode 1, Jan. 8, 2004)

Even then, there was confusion about Trump's turn of phrase, as he was quoted in some reviews as saying "I won bigly" (e.g. here and here).

A decade later, when Trump was once again flirting with a presidential run, he spoke at the 2014 meeting of the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC). And once again, big league was in his arsenal.

For those that don't understand devaluation, what they are saying is basically, we're ripping you big league… And believe me, they're taking our jobs, and they're taking them big league. (C-SPAN, Mar. 6, 2014)

But it wasn't until he announced he would be running in the Republican primaries that Trump's big league got much attention. In his announcement speech on June 16, 2015, he used it twice.

Think of it. Iran is taking over Iraq, and they’re taking it over big league. (YouTube)

But Obamacare kicks in in 2016, really big league. It is going to be amazingly destructive. (YouTube)

The misperception of Trump's big league as bigly started in earnest with that speech, with a Dictionary.com blog post noting a spike in online searches for bigly. In September 2015, Slate's Jim Newell wrote about the confusion and got campaign spokeswoman Hope Hicks to confirm that Trump was indeed saying big league.

More recently, the Trump campaign has sought to capitalize on the phrase with the #bigleague hashtag. As Lauren Squires noted, you can even get it on a shirt or button.

And even though the candidate almost always uses big league in an adverbial fashion, the Trump campaign has also made use of the adjectival form in its #BigLeagueTruth Team, which enlisted supporters to fact-check Hillary Clinton in the debates.

Adjectival big-league is not uncommon, however; it's much harder to find examples of it used adverbially. I've come across big-league used occasionally to modify an adjective, as in this example from Stephen King's 1986 novel It (cited in Green's Dictionary of Slang):

The first time I came in contact with anything that summer that was weird—I mean really big-league weird—was in George's room, with you.

But it's the use of big league as a post-modifier for a verb phrase that is particular to Trump-ese. As Mark Liberman noted, many speakers of American English use big-time in that role, but big league is far less expected. That peculiarity of usage, along with Trump's tendency not to release the final /g/, plays a large part in people perceiving what he says as bigly.

(I had more to say about big league vs. bigly in an NYU panel on political rhetoric on Wednesday, before the final debate — video is here.)

Update: More on big league vs. bigly from NPR here.

Some visualizations of prosody

Sunday, 23 October 2016 11:46 am
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Posted by Mark Liberman

This post presents some stuff I did last March — I thought I had blogged about it but apparently I only put it into these lecture notes. It came up in some discussions today in Shanghai, because I thought that maybe similar visualizations might help explore prosodic differences between the speech of English native speakers and Chinese learners of English. This is going to get a little wonkish, so let's start with a picture:

The idea is to look at the two-dimensional density distribution of the f0 slope (rate of pitch change) and the amplitude slope (rate of loudness change). The speech data for this particular plot  comes from the host's side of a 45-minute FreshAir segment,first aired in September of 2014, in which the host Terry Gross interviews Lena Dunham ("Lena Dunham On Sex, Oversharing And Writing About Lost 'Girls'", FreshAir 9/29/2014).

For symmetry, here's the same plot for Lena Dunham's speech in the same interview:

The reason for looking at the bivariate distribution of pitch and amplitude slopes is that rises and falls in amplitude are a pretty good proxy for syllable structure — syllables are typically "sonority peaks".

So those plots are telling us that for both speakers, both pitch and amplitude are falling more often than not, at least in the voiced part of syllables. The preponderance of amplitude falls (in voiced regions) reflects the fact that syllable onsets are generally more abrupt than syllable offsets — there are a smaller number of abrupt rises, and a larger set of more gradual falls. And the preponderance of f0 falls reflects the fact that in American English — or at least in the version of it revealed in this particular interview — local f0 motion is generally falling. In musical terms, English intonation tends to fall by step and rise by leap, just as melodies do in many musical traditions. And therefore at a frame-by-frame scale, negative f0 slopes are much more common than positive ones.

Still, there are some obvious differences in the two women's distributions. And in fact there's a difference between Lena Dunham's speech when she's reading a passage from the book she was promoting, versus her spontaneous conversation elsewhere in the interview:

Now with apologies, here's a slightly wonkish intervention. Anyone who's worked with pitch trackers will be wondering how I can avoid having these plots overwhelmed by noise due to the commonplace scattering of local f0 estimates at the start and end of syllables. For example, here's the f0 track from one fairly typical syllable on Lena Dunham's side of the interview under discussion — f0 is estimated 200 times a second, i.e. every 5 milliseconds:

If we just took the first difference of the f0 estimates, the rates of change estimated for the 20 or so smoothly-varying points would be overwhelmed by estimates from the 17 or so scattered points. One approach would be to apply a linear smoother to the vector of estimates. What I did instead was this:

For each sequence of five consecutive voice frames (i.e. 25 milliseconds), check that the mean frame-to-frame absolute value of the f0 changes is less than 20 Hz. If so, then calculate the regression slope for the amplitude and f0 estimates for those five frames; otherwise, ignore them.

If you're curious, see these lecture notes for some further details.

Another way to get at the same issues would be to look at a density plot of dipole statistics. Here we ask, at every possible time difference between estimated f0 values, what the distribution of f0 differences is. The result is a 3-dimensional plot where one axis is time difference, another axis is f0 difference, and the third one is the relative frequencies of pairs of points with that time difference and pitch difference.

If we limit the time difference to syllabic scale — say 0 to 200 milliseconds — we get this for Terry Gross in the cited interview:

And this for Lena Dunham:

Again we can see that syllable-scale f0 is mostly falling. And we don't need to impose any exclusions on f0 estimates or do any smoothing — the plots are just based on an inventory of all pairs of f0 estimates separated by a given time difference.

If we look instead at phrasal-scale time differences, we see that downtrends continue quite clearly in the host's speech, out to time differences of a second and beyond:

But Lena Dunham gets closer to an even distribution of overall rises and falls as we look at time differences greater than half a second or so:

From what I've seen of English as spoken by Chinese learners, it seems possible that plots of this kind might help to visualize some of the prosodic differences.

[Note: I'm well aware that "pitch" and "loudness" are psychological terms that are not at all the same as the physical measures of fundamental frequency (f0) and amplitude — I've occasionally used "pitch" and "loudness" in this post, perhaps foolishly, to try to make it more accessible.]


Sunday favorites

Sunday, 23 October 2016 10:49 am
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Posted by Fred Clark

"We come on the ship they call the Mayflower We come on the ship that sailed the moon We come in the age's most uncertain hour and sing an American tune ..."

Lesbian Duplex 91: An Open Thread

Sunday, 23 October 2016 09:00 am
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Posted by Libby Anne

It’s time for another Lesbian Duplex thread! If you have a link or article or interesting thought that’s not relevant to an ongoing thread, you can share it here. If a conversation on another post has turned entirely off topic, you can bring it here also.Click through and enjoy!

Saturday Printable: School Supply Stickers

Saturday, 22 October 2016 01:00 pm
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Posted by Agnes Nebrelius

As the days turn gray, but winter break just could not seem further away, it’s hard to stay motivated. For these difficult times, I made some fun and bright stickers to pep up school supplies. They’re for books, notebooks, planners, and even glue sticks (see: Glueless)! Sticker paper is very helpful for this project. Download the set here:


Stay strong! ♦

Agnes Nebrelius is a 16-year-old gal who enjoys drawing and photography, as well as having dance parties under the fairy lights in her bedroom.

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Posted by L.Y. Marlow

Years ago, I decided to walk away from a corporate career of over 20 years to dedicate my life to a cause that impassions me. Not because I believe in it or because I wanted to find meaning beyond the life and career I had built, but because I come from four generations of mothers and daughters that suffered and survived over 60 years of domestic violence.


I am often asked how it’s possible for domestic violence to perpetuate in one family for four generations. It took me a long time to understand this question, and even longer to answer it. It’s possible because of one word: silence.

My grandmother didn’t talk to my mother about it. My mother didn’t talk to me about it. And I’m not ashamed to admit that I didn’t talk to my daughter about it—not until I received a chilling phone call in the wee hours of the night that broke not only my silence, but my heart.

My daughter had been beaten and strangled by her boyfriend while my six-month old granddaughter, Promise lay on the bed bedside her.

Silence prevailed in my family—and it prevails in many families and communities simply because we are ashamed to talk about something like domestic violence unless there is a controversy or tragedy. Silence should not just be broken when we hear the story about a famous athlete, celebrity or another woman’s life that was taken at the hands of her partner.

Domestic violence is one of the most serious public health crises of our time. Nearly 50 million women, men and children that are exposed to domestic violence each year in the U.S. alone. 1 in 3 women will experience rape, physical violence and/or stalking by an intimate partner in their lifetime. More than three women are murdered every single day.

My daughter survived the second time this person had tried to kill her. But it’s still disheartening that we didn’t understand the effect silence would have on my family for generations to come. Promise’s story not only forced me to find my voice, but a vision. I founded Saving Promise—a national domestic violence prevention organization that will ignite a call to action to shift the conversation from intervention to prevention.

But no one organization can solve this problem alone. It requires cross-sector collaborations; evidence-based prevention strategies and policies; greater public awareness and education; and visionaries, leaders and people like you to stand with us on this vitally important issue. We have an opportunity to help protect our loved ones and prevent this epidemic that costs our global economy trillions of dollars a year in lost productivity, healthcare and law enforcement.

I’m sharing my story this Monday, October 24 at 12:30 PM EST as part of “The Domestic Violence Crisis: Mobilizing the Public and Private Sectors,” a live webcast jointly presented by The Forum at the Harvard Chan School and The Huffington Post. You can join us by watching online at hsph.me/domesticviolence.

I do not take it lightly when I say that I have dedicated my life to saving Promise and the countless Promises and families that are affected by this global public health crisis. Therefore, from my heart to yours, I ask you to join us and see how you can be a part of the promise for change.

img_0151-bw-finalL.Y. Marlow is the founder of Saving Promise, a sought-after empowerment lecturer and spokeswoman for domestic violence awareness and prevention and the award-winning author of Color Me Butterfly (the story that inspired Saving Promise), the highly acclaimed A Life Apart and the soon to be released Don’t Look at the Monster.

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The post I Walked Away From a Corporate Career to Break the Silence appeared first on Ms. Magazine Blog.

Dear Diary: October 21, 2016

Saturday, 22 October 2016 02:00 am
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Posted by Amil Barlow

Going to my first haunted house soon! Looking forward to getting spooked! I also got invited to a halloween party for the first time! —Amil

Going to my first haunted house soon! Looking forward to getting spooked! I also got invited to a halloween party for the first time! —Amil


As observation or experience has taught all of us, being young and black in public is dangerous. I walked over to investigate the situation, to find the woman—clearly intoxicated—stumbling, and screaming vulgarities. Read More »

Friday Playlist: Character Study

Friday, 21 October 2016 10:00 pm
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Posted by Britney Franco

Illustrations by Taira Rice.

Illustrations by Taira Rice.

Throughout my life, other girls have been an overwhelming force that shaped the way I am today. They have been the ones I strived to emulate, the ones I loved, and the ones who comforted and confused me. This playlist represents all of my different selves and the girls I admire.

The making of a cinematic linguist's office

Friday, 21 October 2016 07:38 pm
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Posted by Ben Zimmer

Ever since the first trailer for the upcoming science-fiction movie "Arrival" came out back in August, we here at Language Log Plaza have been anxiously awaiting more glimpses of Amy Adams as Dr. Louise Banks, a linguistics professor who is called upon to communicate with aliens after they arrive on Earth. The final trailer of the film has been released, in advance of the theatrical release on Nov. 11. And while many people may marvel at the CGI rendering of the alien ships, I'd imagine that the first reaction of most linguists is, "Hey, check out her office! And what books are on those shelves?"

When the first trailer was released, Gretchen McCulloch let the word slip on her All Things Linguistic blog that some linguists at McGill University (near the film's shooting location in Montreal) were consulted, and that "the books in Adams's office were borrowed from the offices of a couple linguists at McGill." I followed up with the McGill faculty who served as consultants to learn more about how the filmmakers recreated the office of a linguist. It's fair to say that it's the most meticulous rendering of a linguist's scholarly abode since the phonetician Peter Ladefoged helped design the lab of Henry Higgins in "My Fair Lady."

For the film, the linguistic consultants included Jessica Coon, Lisa deMena Travis, and Morgan Sonderegger, all from McGill. The set designers spent time with Travis and Coon in their offices and ended up borrowing many of their books, as well as reproducing other items from their offices, in order to create the office set.

Via e-mail, Coon writes:

The set crew came to my office first and took a lot of pictures (they liked my tea kettle and plants, and they wanted to know what kind of bag I carry). They needed to rent a certain number of feet of books, but I didn't have enough, so we went up to Lisa's office. I keep a fairly tidy office… they liked Lisa's much better.

In the latest trailer, we can see the office from two angles, when Forrest Whitaker's character, Colonel Weber, comes in to ask for help in deciphering the aliens' language.

It's hard to make out much detail in these shots from the trailer, but fortunately one of the film's publicity stills gives us a great view of the desk and nearby shelves. You can see the high-resolution image here (the file size is about 7.5 MB); here it is in lower resolution.

One item that immediately jumps out is the copy of Noam Chomsky's Aspects of the Theory of Syntax on Banks's desk.

And there's even a framed photo of Chomsky on the bookshelf.

Flanking the Chomsky photo are some syntax books, appropriately enough, from Andrew Carnie's Syntax on the left to David Adger's Core Syntax on the right. (As it happens, Adger went to an advance screening of Arrival — see his writeup, "How Alien Can Language Be?") On other shelves, you might be able to spot Roman Jakobson's On Language, Ken Hale: A Life in Language, Juan Uriagereka's Rhyme and Reason, and Jessica Coon's own Aspects of Split Ergativity.

But Travis told me that the set designers were less interested in titles than colors: they were particularly interested in borrowing blue and beige books. Fortunately, she had plenty of both. Many of the blue ones are in the Linguistik Aktuell series from John Benjamins (Travis serves on the advisory editorial board). And she had lots of beige-colored journals (e.g., LanguageNatural Language and Linguistic Theory, Linguistic InquiryOceanic Linguistics) and conference proceedings (e.g., NELS, short for the North East Linguistic Society).

But what about the rest of the office? Many items are directly based on what the set crew saw in the McGill offices. For instance, there's a ruler on the desk near the copy of Aspects, not necessarily a common accoutrement in a linguist's office these days. But Travis says they probably got the idea from a ruler on her desk, which she uses to tear paper. Even the pencil holder appears to be modeled on one that Travis has. (Travis also has a photo of Chomsky in her office, though not the one they used.)

Here's a desk shot from the trailer:

There's that ruler again. Also, sticking out from the folder is a printout with the JSTOR logo visible. Coon thinks that came from her office, as they borrowed some of her papers: "I recognize it because I colored in the logo at some point, doodling… I'm pretty sure it was Aissen 1992." Now her doodling will be seen by millions.

Then there's the computer, as seen in the publicity still:

What software is running on that Mac? Sonderegger says:

I wonder if this is custom fake software/screenshots they made. I remember them talking about this at the studio and perhaps showing me/us some examples.
The upper right-hand panel has a similar color scheme to Praat, but it doesn't look like an actual Praat screen. (I did a bunch of Praat demonstrating, so it'd make sense that they would use something about it.)
The other software that was used (at their request) was Baudline, but I can't tell if any of this looks like Baudline.
It's hard to say much definitively at this resolution.

One might nitpick about certain peculiarities — Travis says, "No one her age would have printed versions of so many things. No one would put a desk so close to the file cabinets (they can't be openable)." But for the most part the set designers did a remarkable job in their recreation. "The attention to detail is just striking (if you work in McGill Ling)," Sonderegger writes. "The filing cabinets, shelves, and even the trashcan are very similar to models in faculty offices."

Update: From the comments below… McGill Alumni Magazine has a nice piece about Jessica Coon's work on the film as a linguistic consultant. And Eric Heisserer, the screenwriter and co-producer of Arrival, chimes in to tell us that despite all the Chomskyana in Dr. Banks's office, Dan Everett is her favorite!

Mini Mall: Fun Stuff for Fall

Friday, 21 October 2016 03:00 pm
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Posted by Ugochi Egonu

Collage by Beth Hoeckel.

Collage by Beth Hoeckel.

strangerthingsStranger Things Birthday Card
Last weekend, I finally caved to the hype and binge-watched Stranger Things with my friend and my sister. It was AMAZING. The three of us are now in love with all the characters on the show. If you are as obsessed with Stranger Things as we are, you have to get this awesome birthday card that features Eleven and her crew. Give it to a friend who also watches the show, or keep it for yourself because it’s just that cute! P.S. There’s also this adorable Eleven pin, if you want to really commit to the Stranger Things fan club. ($4.50, The Found) —Ugochi Egonu

twizzlersCaramel Apple Twizzlers
If you happen to live far from autumnal festivities, there’s a solution for getting a taste of fall: Caramel Apple Twizzlers. I recently finished a bag of these, and they are the best thing ever. They’re essentially regular ol’ apple flavored Twizzlers with caramel cream in the middle. Sometimes Halloween candy is subpar, but this treat won’t let you down. ($6.20, Amazon) —Isabel Ryan

friendsFriends Button
I spend too much of my time on BuzzFeed taking those “Which character from Friends are you?” quizzes, and I get a different answer each time I take it. So why not represent all the Friends with this button! Get one for each of the members of your own cast of pals. ($2.99, Cafepress) —Ogechi Egonu ♦

Anonymous Tip: Supreme Court 101

Friday, 21 October 2016 01:03 pm
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Posted by Libby Anne

Peter says they're still going to take the case to the Supreme Court. The next section is a phone call between Farris and Charles French, the law professor at the University of Michigan that Joe knew. But first, Peter took the rest of the day off to talk to Gwen's parents. Which amounts to the whole day off, because if you remember, Gwen came in at 9:15 am. But if you're your own boss, I suppose you can do that.Click through to read more!
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"This is my prayer: that your love may overflow more and more with knowledge and full insight to help you to determine what is best."
-- St. Paul's Epistle to the Philippians 1:9-10

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